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A strong mixed power, usually described as Tangut, and consisting chiefly of Tibetan elements under c 1 8 China: Past and Present migrated Toba rulers, gradually gained consistence in the region of Ordos and Kokonor ; Corea, Annam, Yun Nan, and Tibet took advantage of the anarchy to recover their practical independence; and there followed a series of devastating wars.

Towards the close of the tenth century the situation stood thus. A successful General had succeeded in reuniting the whole of Old China and South China under a new native dynasty called Sung.

The Cathayans, assisted by Chinese renegades, and fed by enormous relays of artisans, culti- vators, and other prisoners of war, founded a very strong empire of what may be called the Parthian or Boer type, ue.

For years this Cathayan empire monopolized the whole of the supreme power in Mongolia, receiving tribute from the remains of the Turks to the west and the rising Manchu tribes to the east Although one or two complimentary missions came from the Khaliphs, from Persia, Khotan, and other western places, it may be said roughly that when the bulk of the Turks fled west, to hide their new movements in the new forms of Ghaznivides, Seldjuks, and Osmanli, they drew after them the holes into which they crept.

For many centuries all land knowledge of the Far West is blotted out from Chinese minds. The Tangut Kingdom effectually blocked the way between China and Turkestan, and the chief occupation of that capable state was in playing off South China against the Cathayans, paying normal tribute to both.

Tibet, Yiin Nan, Indo-China, and Japan were left entirely alone, to work out their own developments in comparative oblivion.

The south-sea trade developed rapidly, and there grew up important Arab and Persian trading colonies at various ports between Canton and the Yangtsze; but even at this comparatively late date the Governments of Central China seem to have known but little of the economical development which was taking place along the coasts.

Trade was as yet a purely popular and unofficial institution. The tyranny of the Cathayans over their eastern vassals, the true Tunguses, or Manchu States, then collectively known as the Niichto, led to a revolt in those little-known regions.

The tribes in question, hardened by the discipline of a A Great Feast of Languages 19 hunting life, had by degrees evolved a military strategy of no mean order.

Their masters, the Cathayans, had become correspondingly corrupt and softened by two centuries of close contact with Chinese luxury.

The upshot of all this was that the southern Chinese intrigued with the NiichSns on the basis of regaining for China the Peking plain, which had been so long a part of Cathay.

As seems to have been the invariable case in the history of the world when a weak power asks the aid of a strong one, the Niichfins not only drove out of North China the common Cathayan enemy, but soon found pretexts for keeping the Peking plain for themselves, and encroaching farther upon China proper.

Simultaneously with the substitution of the Niichdns for the Cathayans in North China, the Sung or pure Chinese dynasty found it necessary to move their capital, which was in 1 1 36 transferred to Hangchow.

The powerful state of Tangut, on being summoned to do so, promptly transferred to the Niichdns the limited amount of homage it had once paid to the Cathayans, and continued to keep the two balls in the air, so to speak, by playing off North China against South China.

The chief picture to focus before the eye with reference to this period — to A. To the north lay the rest of their vast Mongol-Manchu empire, with which South or literary China had no concern.

Throughout the whole of this period the mixed Tibeto-Chinese populations, under the rule of a migrated Tungusic family, maintained a really powerful empire, by Europeans styled Tangut, on account of the preference given to Tangut or Tibetan speech.

Owing to this large infusion of Tartar blood, the northern dialects of China, and notably that of Pekin, which is the best known to Europeans, became corrupted in exactly the same way that Latin became corrupted in Gaul.

Hence the Pekingese, or other " mandarin " dialects may be styled the French of China, whilst the true Latin or ancient classical pronunciation must be looked for in the south.

Thus it comes that, Corea and Annam having practically been shut 20 China: Past and Present out for many centuries, we find that the numerous Chinese words imported into these regions two thousand years ago, confirm, better than does any other pure Chinese dialect, the key to ancient sounds still furnished by colloquial Cantonese.

Now occurred one of those events upon which hinge the higher history of the world. This chief was the future Genghis Khan, and this first insubordinate act led by degrees to the over- throwing of the Niichfin dynasty.

Like all Tartar leaders who have once succeeded in rousing enthusiasm, the chief of the Mung-wa or Mung-ku tribe soon succeeded in attracting to his banner the innumerable hordes of Turkish and mixed race scattered about with their horses, cattle, tents, and waggons over the vast expanse of North Asia.

One of the first things was to sweep away the intervening Tangut empire which stood in his way. He seems to have had no particular idea of western conquest until the Mussulman Sultan of Otrar in Turkestan behaved in an outrageous way to some Mongol ambassadors.

This led to the conquest of Turkestan, Bucharia, all the countries of the old Ephthalite or Yet-ti empire between the Indus and the Euphrates destroyed by the Turks about , and ultimately to the incorporation of the Kirghis, Kipchaks, Armenians, and Russians.

At one time even Western Europe trembled with apprehension, and it is from the accounts left behind by A Cycle of Cathay 21 Rubruquis and other emissaries, sent by the Pope and the King of France to the Mongol khans in Russia and Mongolia, that we derive much of our information about those times.

This information is amply confirmed by the Chinese histories. The native historians, it is true, understood little or nothing of the outlandish persons and places they described on the authority of return warriors in Hungary, Russia, and Persia ; but fortunately they "nailed their names at least to the counter," and scanty though the context is, it is sufficient for us to know by these names that there is no serious distortion of the fact as we are sure of it from Western sources.

They may be partly excused by the circumstance that the Byzan- tine Roman Empire had then practically ceased to exist, and that the miserable remains of it to be found at Constantinople were barely on a footing of equality with the Popes of Rome, and with the Teutonic Roman Empire, or the Western Powers of Spain, France, England, and Germany.

The Southern Chinese empire had the same bitter experience. Marco Polo's faithful narrative best enables those who cannot yet study Chinese history to judge what this empire was.

Members of Kublai's family ruled over Russia, the Caucasus, Persia, all the Pamir countries, all the useful parts 6i Siberia, and Manchuria.

Mongol viceroys dictated con- ditions to Corea, Tibet, Burma, and Annam. Japan alone succeeded in absolutely repelling 22 China: Past and Present any attempt at invasion.

But the usual course of events followed: Saul among the prophets was not more out of place than are nomad Tartars on a civilized throne.

Even Kublai himself only ruled immediately over China proper, and his empire beyond that was much less firmly knit together than is the Manchu empire even now.

His cousins in the west soon proclaimed their independence, and in the Chinese rose en masse against their oppressors, who were promptly driven back to their native deserts and steppes.

It must be conceded, how- ever, that the Mongols were tolerant of foreigfn religions and foreign science.

Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism all enjoyed as much countenance as Confucianism. The priestly founder of the purely Chinese Ming dynasty, whose venerated tomb is still respectfully preserved, if not guarded, at Nanking, completely changed the face of affairs.

China for the Chinese was his motto, and the provinces were soon reorganized, much on their present basis, with a firm hand. Messages were sent by Prankish merchant envoys to Europe ; the change of dynasty was notified to the Central Asian States ; and a very lively sea-trade sprang up in the early part of the fifteenth century with Japan, Loochoo, Manila, Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Siam, India, Arabia, and the north-west parts of Africa.

This was the only period in Chinese history and it did not last many years when Chinese commerce assumed a truly aggressive and even military aspect in the Indian Ocean ; the accounts given by Marco Polo prove that the Mongol trading junks had frequented exactly the same ports as were a century later visited by powerful Chinese fleets.

The very name of all these Almost thou persuadest me 23 nationalities had now utterly disappeared from men's minds.

Mongol was the only name now for all Tartars, except that the powerful western Mongols, or Kalmucks, were usually distinguished as Eleuths.

The Niichfins, or Manchus, were loosely grouped as Uriangkha Mongols, and forgotten. Christianity utterly disappeared for over two centuries, and very little was heard of Islam.

The Japanese, aroused to secular hostility against China partly through the recollection of Kublai Khan's abortive invasion, kept up incessant piratical attacks upon the coasts.

The difficulty of repelling the Mongol attacks by land and the Japanese raids by sea led China to adopt a policy of exclusion, which was further accentuated when the Folangki, or Franks, in the shape of Portuguese and Spaniards, appeared upon the scene about 1 They were not at first recognized as the old Fuh-lin, but were supposed to be strange savages from the southern ocean.

It may be said that, between the collapse of the Mongols and the arrival by sea of Europeans, China kept pretty closely within her shell.

As for Zipangu, or Japan, it was appraised by us Westerners as a fictitious invention, until Mendez Pinto actually visited the place about During this period of comparatively peaceful seclusion, the Niichfin tribes, driven away by the Mongols, and for years almost entirely forgotten, had time to grow strong in their distant obscurity.

Under the new and ill-explained name of Manchu, they began to come into prominence on the Chinese frontier just at the very time Japan was nervously wrestling in her own domains with Christianity, and when the jealous Japanese Napoleon Hideyoshi was sending his Christian Generals to the front, like so many Uriahs, to attack China through Corea.

Meanwhile eunuch misgovernment and excessive taxation had provoked serious internal rebellions in Shan Si and Ho Nan. Expiring China had succeeded, before these broke out, in saving Corea from permanent occupation by Japan, and the first Jesuit missionaries managed to imbue the Chinese Emperor with a kindly and tolerant feeling towards Christianity.

At this auspicious moment, a lucky turn might have made China a Christian 24 China: Past and Present country under friendly European tutelage: Under pretext that there were no Intimate heirs to the Ming throne, the Manchu prince, in , declared himself Emperor of China, and proceeded to extend and consolidate his conquests.

Many readers, after the events of the past three years, will think it incongruous when I suggest that the Manchu dynasty is, perhaps, the very best the Chinese ever had.

But it is so. The first Emperor died young ; the second, K'ang-hi, ruled gloriously for sixty years, and has left a name which both in literature and in war is imperishable.

He thoroughly conquered and consolidated the Chinese Empire, besides securing his position in Mongolia, Russian Siberia, and Corea.

His grandson K'ien-lung also reigned for full sixty years ; he was one of the wittiest and most intelligent men that ever sat upon a throne.

Lord Macartney visited him just over a century ago. Decay and rebellion set in with the nineteenth century just expired.

None of the Emperors were particularly bad men as rulers, but they have all been inferior in capacity to the two excellent monarchs above specified.

The Opium War of , the "Arrow" lorcha War of , the Taiping rebellion of , the Mussulman revolts in Yiin Nan and Kashgaria, the stealthy advance of Russia, the Japanese seizure of Formosa in , the French hostilities of ,— all these mark steps in disaster ; but, with Like a JVounded Snake 25 astonishing sagacity and vitality, China was gradually sur- viving the ill effects of all, and was consolidating her position, when the unfortunate Japanese war broke out.

This blow fairly staggered China. As she attempted to struggle to her feet, Germany delivered a final knock-out blow in the shape of the Kiao Chou affair; then took place a rush for the spoils of the dying gladiator.

In sheer desperation the old empire made one last mad dying lunge for freedom in the shape of the foolish " Boxer " revolt.

Undoubtedly she would have been torn to pieces this time had it not been for the remnants of conscience ultimately exhibited by Great Britain, the United States, and Japan, for an alliance with which last-named gallant country I, with others, have pleaded from time to time — I am glad to say now, successfully.

In the present instance, references to the past will be confined to a few indispensable statistical data. Ross, of Manchuria, is the only European student who has — at least, so far as I am aware — produced figures from ancient Chinese history indicating what the population was supposed to be at a given date.

I possess the Chinese originals, but I have not verified all his figures, though I see no reason for doubting their accuracy.

The period is too distant, and the social and economical conditions of those times are too little known to us, that we should accept these bare figures, apart from their context, as evidence bearing upon the population of modem times.

I merely quote 26 China: Past and Present them as an introductory illustration for purposes of proportion, and I ignore all numbers below a hundred thousand.

A fearful drop to 3,, families had taken place by A. This fact alone throws us on our beam ends so far as any chance of righting our historical position goes.

When the present Manchu dynasty had seated itself securely on the throne, it set about taking stock of its possessions. In there were 10,, taxable units; in the total had gone up to 14,, ; but this increase simply points to further conquests of territory; and there are then various ups and downs until , when we reach our first secure basis of 18,, From this time to there is steady progression year by year up to 19,, But the " Revolt of the Three Satraps " had by gradually reduced this figure to 16,,, and it was not until that lost ground was fully recovered.

From this time onwards we find the official returns are usually the same for pairs or triplets of years, showing apparently that they were no longer sent in annually ; but still the increase was steady and fairly uniform up to 17 12, when the Emperor resolved upon a new system.

The way it was done was this: The poll-tax was merged in the land-tax. But that computation does not mean that only ,, acres were cultivated.

Two second-class acres count as one good ; four poor as one good ; ten, or even twenty, barren as one good. Hence from 17 13 to we have a double computation, divided into taxable and non-taxable units.

By the taxable units had increased to 25,, ; not because taxes had been any way enhanced contrary to the new rule, but probably because emigrrants had brought Mongol lands under cultivation ; reclamations of marshes and river-beds had been made ; and the remain- ing scraps of untilled lands had been " raised to taxability.

In 17 13 the "free heads" numbered 60,, and this proportionate rate of increase upon the double total was pretty uniform up to , when the total had reached , During the Kalmuck wars of , no returns were sent in ; but, so soon as the Emperor found time to turn his attention to home affairs, he asked: I want to know how many human souls we possess.

Of course, between and the untaxed heads must have increased. Let us therefore assume, from the official figures issued by the Emperor's own authority, that in there were 27,, "doors," or families, con- taining ,, souls.

From this time to 1, when the population had risen to ,,, the official returns are given year by year, with 28 China: Past and Present the following exceptions: It is not explained why they are not given in those years.

I hope to elucidate the mystery some other time. Starting from this new basis, the population increases regularly up to ,, in , after which there is a great drop, in consequence of certain rebellions; low-water mark is reached in , and it is not until that lost ground is recovered.

Two remarks of the Emperor are worth noting as showing i that the returns were issued under his solemn authority, and 2 that there were good reasons required for sudden fluctuations.

He says in The vagaries of the Yellow River cause a good deal of irregularity during the next decade, and I may note for the benefit of the student of original documents that, when it is said " minus the returns of such a province not yet received," this qualification of a total does not appear to mean exactly that ; but rather, elliptically, " quoting last year's returns for such a province, which has not yet sent its papers in.

But in Cato the Censor tjc the Rev. Lobscheid translated from the Russian, and published in Hong Kong, a report by M.

Sacharoff incidentally makes the remark that "the population for was 98, greater than that of Sacharoff also gives the increase between and 1 as 77,,, and that between 18 12 and as 53,, Having now examined the sole evidence upon which we can reasonably base our estimates, and arrived at conclusions which, though necessarily approximate and defective, are the only ones lexically possible on the premises, let us see how far the Taiping rebellion of forty years ago reduced the population.

In there was already a reduction of ,,; and by i the last year for which official estimates are given a further reduction of 70,, The precise figures are ,, and ,, Of course this does not necessarily mean that ,, people perished in ten years 50, a day , but probably that the anarchy prevailing rendered it impossible to secure any returns at all in devastated districts.

In other words, by applying to definite evidence rules of interpretation already 30 China: Past and Present proved historically sound, we have a primd facie right to assume that the present minimum population of China is not far from ,, The evidence we possess in support of this primd facie assumption once more comes through Russian sources ; the Russians alone having taken the trouble to do what any one else can do in China, Le.

But this evidence is always the same; it is simply the record of the Board of Revenue. There is no other. PopoiTs returns were translated and published in Shanghai ten years ago; ten provinces were for , and eight for — a singular arrangement which seems to point to a practice such as I have above surmised to exist, that of con- tinuing to use the same returns until the next set are sent in for the defaulting province.

His total is ,,, a figure at first sight twelve years too high ; but it must be remem- bered that the Yellow River reduced the population between 1 and 1 82 1 ; so that, instead of ,, for , we should add on ten years' increase to that figure.

In this was, in fact, about the population ; and by it had gone up to ,,, which, therefore, by abstract reasoning should be the true figure for PopofT once more comes to the rescue.

He has recently published in the Russian Geographical Society's Journal the returns for , obtained, as usual, from his accommodating friends at the Board.

His figures for the eighteen provinces of China proper are ,, But Formosa is included in this total, and in Formosa had not yet developed a true Chinese status, so that the difference between ,, and ,, both on the basis of excluding Formosa is not so very great.

Having now explained how the population of China came to be ,, in and ,, in , 1 will give two tables, both obtained by M.

PopofT, at different dates, from the Board, showing the effects upon the population of each province produced by the Taiping rebellion chiefly in the Yangtsze Valley, the Panthay rebellion in Yun Nan, and the Mussulman rebellion in Kan Suh.

For convenience I knock off or add all fractions of , as being both uncertain and unessential. Multitude of Counsellors 31 Name of Province.

In case of Fuh Kien, Kwang Tung Kwei Chou Shan Si Shan Tung Popoifs second total of ,, as above explained.

The third column in the case of Fuh Kien, is anonymous, but I think I recognize in it the hand of a very able British official, who, of course, had his reasons for privacy.

It will be noticed that in every case where M. After wandering over the province for many years, he estimated the popu- lation in at 25,, ; but of course such casual estimates can have little value.

In the case of Chdh Kiang, I possess the Governor's returns for — always between eleven and twelve millions ; moreover, I have myself tramped throughout the length and breadth of the province, and seen its desolation.

Chih Li is unsatisfactory, for we do not know 32 China: Past and Present if the metropolitan district is included, not to mention the Mongols: Fuh Kien's exact figures 25,, are exactly the same for and , so that we may be certain they have been " carried on " for many years.

Ho Nan lost ground during the Yellow River flood of Hu Nan and Hu Peh need no justification. Yakub Beg and the Dungans almost depopulated Kan Suh previous to the Chinese reconquest in ; probably the Mussul- man rebellion of has reduced the population to 8,, There was a famine in Kiang Si a few years ago, but I am surprised to see the population so much reduced.

PopofT, for Kiang Su could hardly increase 20 per cent in ten years. Kwang Si was the birthplace of the Taiping rebellion, as it now is of another anti-dynastic rebellion.

Kwang Tung has recently suffered from floods, drought, and plague. The Kwei Chou figures for are probably a misprint for 4,, On the other hand, the Panthay and Taiping rebellions both affected the province between and Shan Si was half depopulated by famine and rats during ; the Rev.

Hill has published full accounts of the hideous suffering undergone. Shan Tung is stationary; it sends off its surplus population to Manchuria, Mongolia, and even Corea.

Shen Si suffered by the Dungan rebellion. I cannot possibly believe that the Sz Ch'wan people trebled their numbers in forty years.

Certainly, there is a vast and steady immigration of Kiang Si, Hu Nan, Hu Peh, and Shen Si men; but at least half the province is the almost inaccessible resort of Lolos and Tibetan tribes.

True, The Things which are Ccesar's 33 peace and prosperity have reigned for fifty years, and the figures given are positive.

I simply do not believe them, and leave readers to judge for themselves whether a moun- tainous country like Switzerland, with a cultivated area not greater than that of France, can support a population double that of France.

If true, then the maximum revenue of six millions means that each soul only contributes threepence a year for all charges and taxes put together.

As to Yiin Nan there must be some mistake, the Panthay rebellion having desolated the whole province ; probably the figure 1 1,, for should be 4,, The principles upon which the Chinese revenue is col- lected were explained in a series of letters which I wrote to the Times during the year i8th and 27th August, 12th and 15th September, 31st December.

I now furnish an amended statement of what I conceive the Chinese revenue to be: Like the Population Table, it is notably defective, in that the figures of each item for one and the same year are rarely obtainable ; the Foreign Customs column alone is uniformly taken for the year , and the true gross total is including fractions of 21,, taels.

If the Kowloon Hong Kong and Lappa Macao stations are included, another million must be added, and the total becomes 22,, ; but these two places are not exactly in China, and the revenue is practically con- tributed by the Chinese residing in British and Portuguese colonies.

Of the sixteen perpendicular columns only half the number can be taken seriously in the sense of rateable revenue. Tea duties are of no very great importance except in Fuh Kien, and even there it is doubtful whether they are not already counted in the likin, or in the native customs totals.

The extra million of Miscellaneous under Kwang Tung refers to the Examina- tion Lottery, which is farmed out for an enormous bonus every few years, apart from annual royalties on tickets sold ; the Chinese Government is ashamed of this iniquitous income, but is obliged to accept it in self-defence, as otherwise Macao "operates" the business, and the Portuguese get the money.

Ten per cent, of the Foreign Customs Revenue must be deducted for running expenses; so that even including Lappa and Kowloon 20,, net is the utmost we can i.

Of the Manchurian tables at the foot of the Chinese totals I shall speak separately. Jamieson's computations as published in the Foreign Office Report.

The three Manchurian provinces are in all cases excluded, and Mr, Jamieson's Foreign Customs are for The fourth column alludes to an official estimate presented to the Emperor by the Board, to which attention was drawn in the Economist of the 3rd of April, Past and Present Head of Revenue.

The main point of the com- parison is that the two rough estimates of myself and the Board agree within , taels ; and that the worked-out estimates of myself and Mr.

Jamieson agree within , taels ; each of the three parties having worked in ignorance of what the other two were doing.

To complete the subject, I append to the Revenue Table for China proper further estimates for Manchuria, a subject upon which I have also addressed two letters to the Times May 23 and August i, PopofTs estimates based upon the Board's documents the total The Pleasure of being cheated 37 population of all Manchuria does not exceed six millions.

The following are his figures for Payers of Land Tax, X The large revenue of Manchuria proper has only been raised within the last two years, and the gold-mines of Tsitsihar are a very uncertain asset Previous to the Japanese war, it may be said in round terms that each of the three Manchurian provinces required a subsidy of , taels a year, but a fearful condition of confusion and peculation reigned in all departments.

Though we are thus able to get near the total revenue figures, it would puzzle the shrewdest firm of chartered accountants to arrive at an exact total for the per contra.

Indeed, were it possible at all clearly to unravel the tangled web of Chinese peculation, the thorough reform of the finances would be merely the matter of a few months' work by Sir Robert Hart and his men.

However, I herewith furnish the best table I can. It will be seen from the last column but one that one-third of the total receipts cannot be accounted for in detail at all, and that the proportion of unaccountability varies with each province.

It is certain that official authorized pay must amount in each case to half a million or a million taels, according to the number of cities.

The local loans must be paid off; the walling in of the reconquered Turkestan cities has to be paid for; the Board and the eunuchs want their " rice money ; " there are many colleges and training schools at Peking, Canton, Nanking, Tientsin, Wuchang, etc There is the copper- mining, under official auspices, of Yun Nan ; official herds in Mongolia and Manchuria ; presents for Mongol princes ; support of parks and hunting-grounds ; and so on.

Of all these, exact statements are lacking. Some of the grain tax is retained to feed provincial Manchu garrisons, and several provinces use up all their own grain tax.

The Palace remittances are certainly now fixed at very near the detailed total I give. The North-East Fund is fixed at 2,,, but for many years it has admittedly been in arrear.

The North-West Fund of 4,, has always been promptly remitted, and all the viceroys and governors con- cerned were thanked for doing so in ; but, as will be seen, I am 1,, taels short in the detail.

Both these funds simply mean "Defence against Russia. The Ku-pht Fund is always steady. The Admiralty Fund is very capricious, and in any event, for some strange reason, only four-fifths of the sums asked need be sent.

In some mysterious way the Railway Fund pretty steady is mixed up with it ; but also. Past and Present by some hocus-pocus, is occasionally "veered" to do duty for the Empress' private pleasures.

The Emperor recently gave orders for seven- tenths to be at once abolished; but each province fights fiercely for its " squeezes. The Aids in Support like the Sub- sidies on the other side cannot reasonably be counted twice, as they already form part of the total expenditure of the provinces granting them.

I have been tied down to space, and cannot therefore enlarge further upon the subject of expenditure. No attempt has yet been made to draw up a Chinese budget, and I can only hope, therefore, that this skeleton table, which at best is very defective, may be of service in indicating the way for future inquirers.

At present the only plan is to arrest every fugitive statement of ofiicial fact, nail it down, group it, collate it, and dish it up with others of its kind in its presumed place; accepting this as statistics until the moment shall arrive when some financier pounces upon the quarry, and finds it possible to turn chaos into order.

I may make one more remark. The 4,, con- tributed by the provinces to Kan Suh seems to be expended by Kan Suh , and Shen Si , combined; it all depends, however, upon what is meant by "intra- mark" and "extra-mark;" or, in other words, from where the " military" frontier is reckoned.

Moreover, the Chinese department of the Newchwang customs confusingly styled Shan-hai Kwan, though that place is far away seems to be under the Viceroy of Chih Li, at least for some purposes.

In order to strike a balance between the Revenue and the Expenditure Tables, I have been obliged to adopt the device of inserting a minus quantity of , taels under the head of unexplained Kirin outgoings.

Kirin is the one province whose obvious incomings, even including subsidies, are short of its expenditure ; hence the sum is rather an unexplained asset than an unexplained shortage.

The whole question of Manchurian receipts and expenditure is a very loose one, and I only include those three provinces in order to indicate a basis for future inquiry.

All that is to be feared is that amongst such persons the good and the bad may get mixed, and that pretexts may be taken to raise trouble with native Christians.

Brooks in Shan Tung, and later, it appears, of certain Belgian engineers. Moreover, the native newspapers, in which the above decree is published a few days later, note with alarm that the ''Boxer" movement has spread with great rapidity across the province of Chih Li right up to the neighbourhood of Newchwang, where many immature youths in their teens have been gained over by the propaganda.

Nor is that a matter for unqualified regret, for it is now hopelessly corrupt, cowardly, and inefficient ; worst of all, it is vacillating, for a persistent villain is a better administrator to have than a weak old simpleton, willing to be hoodwinked.

But at the same time the Chinese themselves are politically as treacherous as the Manchus, besides being infinitely more crafty ; and therefore, whatever happens, it is highly desirable that European Powers including America and Japan in this term should stand to- gether and prevent the " yellow corpse" from putrefying their own existence.

Whatever our rivalries and jealousies, we Europeans, including even Russia, are all imbued with the one spirit of humanity, justice, and progress, summed up in the word " Christian ; " and this is none the less so though half of us may be atheists, freethinkers, and Jews; for it is the spirit of Christianity imbibed with our mothers' milk which forms our minds, even if we reject the puerilities of this or that dogma ; nor is it any the less so because we happen to be hostile to, and even at war with, each other.

Every Chinese dynasty, and every Tartar dynasty ruling China, has disappeared in a pandemonium of anarchy and butchery.

The Manchu dynasty seems bound to go in the same way, and the only thing is to localize the evil and let the anarchists cook in their own juice until they are tired of cooking, taking care that as few European interests as possible are injured.

Compared with Asiatic d masties generally, the Manchu dynasty was at first excellent and intelligent: The well- meaning legitimately selected Emperor is practically a victim to the assassin already.

For whose good is it to support such a dynasty? Being there, the dynasty is convenient to us in so far that it remains a tool which we can handle for our own purposes in a gingerly way without the necessity of hunting for a new tool which might possibly cut us.

But it has no other use under the present usurper and her minions. It is out of the question to substitute a Chinese dynasty, for there is no family in China whose name carries respect and weight throughout the provinces.

But things must not be allowed to come with a rush. If the "Boxers" or any other society once gain headway, a fearful amount of useless bloodshed and wanton destruction will take place ; so the first and most urgent thing is to restore order wherever threatened, and keep the military adventurers on the right side.

It does not in the least matter who runs the machine during this restive 46 China: Past and Present stage, so long as it is run on commission steadily and un- flinchingly.

It is high time now that, after two thousand years of political serfdom, the intelligent and industrious Chinese people, who are excellent municipal and village organizers, should have recognized rights conferred upon them.

K'ang Yu-wei himself should be thrust aside as a dangerous agitator, meddling with matters he only half understands. In the same way Germany may reasonably put Shan Tung in order, without in any way treading upon others' toes.

We and Japan must keep the Shan-hai Kwan open. At the "proper moment" we ourselves should be prepared to hold the gates and the lanes of the Yangtsze ; this we ought to be able to do as easily now as we did during the Taiping rebellion.

France in Hainan, Kwang Si, and parts of Yiin Nan and Kwang Tung ; Japan in Fuh Kien ; Italy in Chfih Kiang; ourselves, again, in Yiin Nan and Kwang Tung ; the Indian Government in Tibet ; the Russians in Hi — here we have work cut out for all; and, starting from these bases, there is no reason why we should not each steadily advance year by year into our respective Hinterlands, and gradually turn the corpse into healthy meat.

It is not necessary to commit acts of aggression or conquest He that fights and runs away 47 Amongst modem missionary reforms, none is more remarkable or worthy of admiration than the Anti-Foot- binding, or Tien-tsu Hwei, started by Mrs.

The fact that so pig-headedly conservative a people as the Chinese are actually rising to the height of this reform amply illustrates how easy our general work will be when the ignorant people discover that we are really labouring for their benefit.

Missionaries of all kinds should have a free handy but under consular control ; and Lord Salisbury never came to a wiser decision than when he accepted Dr.

Temple's recommendation to decline an official status for the Protestant half of them. The occupation of Kiao Chou by the Germans, and the cession to the British of Wei-hai Wei, only increased the uneasy feeling that famines, floods, and the menaces of secret societies had for some time locally aroused in men's minds.

Things were made worse by the bursting of the Yellow River banks, and in November, , Li Hung-chang was sent to inquire into the disaster.

Some one seems to have denounced both him and the Governor, Chang Ju-mei, for corruption in connection with this inquiry ; at any rate, the latter was suddenly removed from his post, and a Manchu, named Yuhien, who had been Treasurer of 48 China: Yuhien had never occupied high civil office before, and had not been long at his post before he began to display, even in military affairs, more than the ordinary Manchu ineptitude, ignorance, and arrogance.

This order exactly suited the mulish and conservative mind of Yuhien ; but, unfortunately for the peace of the world, it also suited the secret society men ; and in the autumn of the doings of the Great Knife Society, and of a new sect called by the missionary correspondents " Boxers," began to attract serious attention in the south-west of Shan Tung: Possibly the reason was in part that the missionary troubles previously caused by the Great Knife Society in North Kiang Su had only recently been patched up with some trouble, and the border authorities had not yet relaxed their general vigilance.

The next thing that was heard was that this miserable specimen of a governor had been impeached for incompetence, the Chinese statement being that he had instigated a subordinate military officer to murder about innocent gentry and people.

Great things were hoped from Yiian Shi-k'ai ; but it soon appeared that there were hampering forces at work in the background. Meanwhile occurred the murder at Fei- ch'teg, south of the provincial capital, of the Rev.

Brooks, and the story of the " Boxers' " doings from that moment can be gathered from Parliamentary Paper No. It may be worth while, however, to go back a moment and inquire into the origin of the word " Boxers," which word, though an incomplete rendering, is, after all, a fairly correct psychological translation of the words Nto K'Uan or " Patri- otic Peace Fists.

During the reign of that Emperor's grandson, at just about the time when Lord Amherst visited China, the same society men, under exactly the same name, again gave trouble.

They were also called " Heavenly Order," and " Eight Dia- gram" people. Past and Present present rebellion, was a man a Mongol, I think named Nayench'fing, and in his report to the alarmed Emperor, dated , he actually uses the words I-lio K'uan, and describes their incantations, their boasted immunity from cannon-shots, etc.

Moreover, the titles of " Great Instructor Brother" and "Second Instructor Brother," which Nayench'fing says were then arrogated to themselves by the "Boxer" chiefs, are precisely those used now ; for on the 5th of June last, when the Empress-Dowager saw the first conflagrations at Ma-kia P'u south of the Peking walls from her I-ho Park, she was informed that the '' Second Instructor Brother " was the chief.

There is nothing at all historically improbable in the suggestion ; for an Emperor of China in the full hey- day of his power once accepted from the Turks the title of "Khan," in order to please them, and to encourage their loyalty ; and we ourselves all know what King Richard II.

It is also a fact, frequently repeated by high Chinese officials, that the Great Sword Society itself is only an offshoot of the ancient "White Lily Society" of dreaded renown, which goes back Fantastic as a IVoman's Mood.

Unfortunately, at Peking the " literary breeze " as the Chinese say " blows very poorly," and all recollection of what had taken place in the days of the Emperor's great-grandfather had apparently disappeared from men's minds, even if those minds ever knew anything of the past.

It was only about the 15th of June, when the literary and learned Viceroy Chang ChM'ung telegraphed to the well-disposed Manchu Prince P'uliang, and exhorted him to use his best influence to make the Empress-Dowager understand the truth, that it appears to have dawned upon her royal mind that the whole "Boxer" business was an imposture.

Chang ChMung telegraphed in these words: Beg at once that a decree may issue for their thorough extermination. The matter is of supreme political import.

The more Imperial clansmen and Manchu gentlemen of any kind you can get to join you, the better. If you delay it will be too late.

If you don't exterminate the fisticuff bandits, you will not be able to stop the foreign soldiers. Past and Present Empress ; but the provocation China has received, together with the hopes instilled into the Empress's mind that she now really had a good chance of avenging her husband Yichu the Emperor Hien-ffing , and the dynasty, ought to serve as mitigating circumstances in a judicially disposed mind.

Her desire to annihilate her European enemies is no worse than the German Emperor's desire to annihilate his Chinese 'foes.

As to the charges brought against her by Mrs. Grundy, there is no evidence, beyond tittle-tattle ; she is, anyhow, a woman of pluck ; and if she can make life less monotonous in her enforced seclusion by " carrying on " with the eunuchs, why should we be more severe with her than with a man?

Who is going to throw the first stone? In any case, it is not our business. However, let us leave morals alone, and see who are the persons chiefly responsible for misleading her.

There is no doubt about Kangi and Yuhien. He therefore makes a third in the number of those who will be " wanted " at Peking.

Prince Twan Tsai-i , of course, is another. His hostility is probably connected with disappointed ambition. As a matter of fact, the present Emperor is the son of the seventh brother, Prince Ch'un, and Prince Twan is the son of the fifth brother, Prince Tun.

The proper course is to go down to the next category Pu. Thus it is extremely probable that dynastic squabbles have complicated the " Boxer " question, which, taken by itself, might easily have been patched up.

I don't know whose son P'uliang is ; but, anyway, he is in the running, for there is no Manchu rule about primo- geniture: It is quite possible for a grand-nephew to be older than his grand-uncle.

Now, so soon as this precious crew were known to be in power, the sensible Viceroy Liu K'un-yih, issued a very good proclamation, explaining the imposture of the invulnerability claim, and pointing out that the Boxers "fell the moment they were shot at " by General Nieh.

The much-abused Li Ping-hdng and the Governor recently acting Viceroy , Luh Ch'wan-lin, all telegraphed together to say that the Boxers ought to be exterminated at once.

The Boxers took Ting- hing Luh's native place on the 20th of June, and it is said the unhappy Governor, fearing this, hurriedly abandoned his reviewing duties on the 17th of June, and hastened back to 54 China: Past and Present Soochow, only to hear a rumour that some of his own family had been massacred.

Yiian ShY-k'ai was ordered to march his men to Peking ; but later he was told, in view of possible danger at Kiao Chou, to send a trusty lieutenant instead.

In closing this short account of the origin of the " Boxer " rebellion, I will just state who all these better-disposed persons are.

He is a fine specimen of a really honest-minded Chinaman. Chang Ch'i-tung made his reputation in , when he impeached Ch'unghou for the "cowardly surrender" of Livadia.

He is a much more learned man than Liu K'un- yih ; but he is fiery, and not so safe and long-headed. I do not know him personally.

Luh is par excellence a literary man ; almost as tall as Li- Hung-chang; very pale and "blinky " about the eyes. He is no particular friend of foreigners ; but he is no fool, and not rabid.

He died in The Devil take the Hindmost 55 4. Yii Yin-lin is described at length in a letter to the Times of the 6th of September, Wang ChY-ch'un was once in Russia, and was first chosen for the Czar's coronation ; but Li Hung-chang was asked for instead.

Sungshou is a Manchu of the True White Banner: I do not know anything personally of these last four. So far as it is possible to judge from what has taken place, every one has been taken by surprise by the recent outburst.

My esteemed former colleague, Mr. Jamieson, it is true, wrote to the Times to call attention to a remarkable prophecy made a month before the outbreak by a correspondent of the North China Daily News ; but the same correspondent had been spinning interesting yarns for a long time ; and the best proof that the editor did not think much of it is that for a whole month after this prophecy he made no further serious allusion to the matter: Moreover, if the Peking correspondent had any real evidence of danger, it was surely his duty to tell Sir Claude Macdonald, who cannot be expected to notice irre- sponsible newspaper alarms.

It is quite certain that the Russians and Japanese were taken aback. From the Emperor downwards nearly everybody is ready to sacrifice any one else, including his family and ancestors, to save his own skin.

As for mere subordinates, false accusations and backhanded private letters are the rule rather than the exception ; and generally nothing is more certain, when an inquiry takes place, than that the high official will get off scot-free, and one of his juniors be made a scapegoat.

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But this evidence is always the same; it is simply the record of the Board of Revenue. There is no other. PopoiTs returns were translated and published in Shanghai ten years ago; ten provinces were for , and eight for — a singular arrangement which seems to point to a practice such as I have above surmised to exist, that of con- tinuing to use the same returns until the next set are sent in for the defaulting province.

His total is ,,, a figure at first sight twelve years too high ; but it must be remem- bered that the Yellow River reduced the population between 1 and 1 82 1 ; so that, instead of ,, for , we should add on ten years' increase to that figure.

In this was, in fact, about the population ; and by it had gone up to ,,, which, therefore, by abstract reasoning should be the true figure for PopofT once more comes to the rescue.

He has recently published in the Russian Geographical Society's Journal the returns for , obtained, as usual, from his accommodating friends at the Board.

His figures for the eighteen provinces of China proper are ,, But Formosa is included in this total, and in Formosa had not yet developed a true Chinese status, so that the difference between ,, and ,, both on the basis of excluding Formosa is not so very great.

Having now explained how the population of China came to be ,, in and ,, in , 1 will give two tables, both obtained by M.

PopofT, at different dates, from the Board, showing the effects upon the population of each province produced by the Taiping rebellion chiefly in the Yangtsze Valley, the Panthay rebellion in Yun Nan, and the Mussulman rebellion in Kan Suh.

For convenience I knock off or add all fractions of , as being both uncertain and unessential. Multitude of Counsellors 31 Name of Province.

In case of Fuh Kien, Kwang Tung Kwei Chou Shan Si Shan Tung Popoifs second total of ,, as above explained. The third column in the case of Fuh Kien, is anonymous, but I think I recognize in it the hand of a very able British official, who, of course, had his reasons for privacy.

It will be noticed that in every case where M. After wandering over the province for many years, he estimated the popu- lation in at 25,, ; but of course such casual estimates can have little value.

In the case of Chdh Kiang, I possess the Governor's returns for — always between eleven and twelve millions ; moreover, I have myself tramped throughout the length and breadth of the province, and seen its desolation.

Chih Li is unsatisfactory, for we do not know 32 China: Past and Present if the metropolitan district is included, not to mention the Mongols: Fuh Kien's exact figures 25,, are exactly the same for and , so that we may be certain they have been " carried on " for many years.

Ho Nan lost ground during the Yellow River flood of Hu Nan and Hu Peh need no justification. Yakub Beg and the Dungans almost depopulated Kan Suh previous to the Chinese reconquest in ; probably the Mussul- man rebellion of has reduced the population to 8,, There was a famine in Kiang Si a few years ago, but I am surprised to see the population so much reduced.

PopofT, for Kiang Su could hardly increase 20 per cent in ten years. Kwang Si was the birthplace of the Taiping rebellion, as it now is of another anti-dynastic rebellion.

Kwang Tung has recently suffered from floods, drought, and plague. The Kwei Chou figures for are probably a misprint for 4,, On the other hand, the Panthay and Taiping rebellions both affected the province between and Shan Si was half depopulated by famine and rats during ; the Rev.

Hill has published full accounts of the hideous suffering undergone. Shan Tung is stationary; it sends off its surplus population to Manchuria, Mongolia, and even Corea.

Shen Si suffered by the Dungan rebellion. I cannot possibly believe that the Sz Ch'wan people trebled their numbers in forty years.

Certainly, there is a vast and steady immigration of Kiang Si, Hu Nan, Hu Peh, and Shen Si men; but at least half the province is the almost inaccessible resort of Lolos and Tibetan tribes.

True, The Things which are Ccesar's 33 peace and prosperity have reigned for fifty years, and the figures given are positive. I simply do not believe them, and leave readers to judge for themselves whether a moun- tainous country like Switzerland, with a cultivated area not greater than that of France, can support a population double that of France.

If true, then the maximum revenue of six millions means that each soul only contributes threepence a year for all charges and taxes put together. As to Yiin Nan there must be some mistake, the Panthay rebellion having desolated the whole province ; probably the figure 1 1,, for should be 4,, The principles upon which the Chinese revenue is col- lected were explained in a series of letters which I wrote to the Times during the year i8th and 27th August, 12th and 15th September, 31st December.

I now furnish an amended statement of what I conceive the Chinese revenue to be: Like the Population Table, it is notably defective, in that the figures of each item for one and the same year are rarely obtainable ; the Foreign Customs column alone is uniformly taken for the year , and the true gross total is including fractions of 21,, taels.

If the Kowloon Hong Kong and Lappa Macao stations are included, another million must be added, and the total becomes 22,, ; but these two places are not exactly in China, and the revenue is practically con- tributed by the Chinese residing in British and Portuguese colonies.

Of the sixteen perpendicular columns only half the number can be taken seriously in the sense of rateable revenue.

Tea duties are of no very great importance except in Fuh Kien, and even there it is doubtful whether they are not already counted in the likin, or in the native customs totals.

The extra million of Miscellaneous under Kwang Tung refers to the Examina- tion Lottery, which is farmed out for an enormous bonus every few years, apart from annual royalties on tickets sold ; the Chinese Government is ashamed of this iniquitous income, but is obliged to accept it in self-defence, as otherwise Macao "operates" the business, and the Portuguese get the money.

Ten per cent, of the Foreign Customs Revenue must be deducted for running expenses; so that even including Lappa and Kowloon 20,, net is the utmost we can i.

Of the Manchurian tables at the foot of the Chinese totals I shall speak separately. Jamieson's computations as published in the Foreign Office Report.

The three Manchurian provinces are in all cases excluded, and Mr, Jamieson's Foreign Customs are for The fourth column alludes to an official estimate presented to the Emperor by the Board, to which attention was drawn in the Economist of the 3rd of April, Past and Present Head of Revenue.

The main point of the com- parison is that the two rough estimates of myself and the Board agree within , taels ; and that the worked-out estimates of myself and Mr.

Jamieson agree within , taels ; each of the three parties having worked in ignorance of what the other two were doing.

To complete the subject, I append to the Revenue Table for China proper further estimates for Manchuria, a subject upon which I have also addressed two letters to the Times May 23 and August i, PopofTs estimates based upon the Board's documents the total The Pleasure of being cheated 37 population of all Manchuria does not exceed six millions.

The following are his figures for Payers of Land Tax, X The large revenue of Manchuria proper has only been raised within the last two years, and the gold-mines of Tsitsihar are a very uncertain asset Previous to the Japanese war, it may be said in round terms that each of the three Manchurian provinces required a subsidy of , taels a year, but a fearful condition of confusion and peculation reigned in all departments.

Though we are thus able to get near the total revenue figures, it would puzzle the shrewdest firm of chartered accountants to arrive at an exact total for the per contra.

Indeed, were it possible at all clearly to unravel the tangled web of Chinese peculation, the thorough reform of the finances would be merely the matter of a few months' work by Sir Robert Hart and his men.

However, I herewith furnish the best table I can. It will be seen from the last column but one that one-third of the total receipts cannot be accounted for in detail at all, and that the proportion of unaccountability varies with each province.

It is certain that official authorized pay must amount in each case to half a million or a million taels, according to the number of cities.

The local loans must be paid off; the walling in of the reconquered Turkestan cities has to be paid for; the Board and the eunuchs want their " rice money ; " there are many colleges and training schools at Peking, Canton, Nanking, Tientsin, Wuchang, etc There is the copper- mining, under official auspices, of Yun Nan ; official herds in Mongolia and Manchuria ; presents for Mongol princes ; support of parks and hunting-grounds ; and so on.

Of all these, exact statements are lacking. Some of the grain tax is retained to feed provincial Manchu garrisons, and several provinces use up all their own grain tax.

The Palace remittances are certainly now fixed at very near the detailed total I give. The North-East Fund is fixed at 2,,, but for many years it has admittedly been in arrear.

The North-West Fund of 4,, has always been promptly remitted, and all the viceroys and governors con- cerned were thanked for doing so in ; but, as will be seen, I am 1,, taels short in the detail.

Both these funds simply mean "Defence against Russia. The Ku-pht Fund is always steady. The Admiralty Fund is very capricious, and in any event, for some strange reason, only four-fifths of the sums asked need be sent.

In some mysterious way the Railway Fund pretty steady is mixed up with it ; but also. Past and Present by some hocus-pocus, is occasionally "veered" to do duty for the Empress' private pleasures.

The Emperor recently gave orders for seven- tenths to be at once abolished; but each province fights fiercely for its " squeezes. The Aids in Support like the Sub- sidies on the other side cannot reasonably be counted twice, as they already form part of the total expenditure of the provinces granting them.

I have been tied down to space, and cannot therefore enlarge further upon the subject of expenditure. No attempt has yet been made to draw up a Chinese budget, and I can only hope, therefore, that this skeleton table, which at best is very defective, may be of service in indicating the way for future inquirers.

At present the only plan is to arrest every fugitive statement of ofiicial fact, nail it down, group it, collate it, and dish it up with others of its kind in its presumed place; accepting this as statistics until the moment shall arrive when some financier pounces upon the quarry, and finds it possible to turn chaos into order.

I may make one more remark. The 4,, con- tributed by the provinces to Kan Suh seems to be expended by Kan Suh , and Shen Si , combined; it all depends, however, upon what is meant by "intra- mark" and "extra-mark;" or, in other words, from where the " military" frontier is reckoned.

Moreover, the Chinese department of the Newchwang customs confusingly styled Shan-hai Kwan, though that place is far away seems to be under the Viceroy of Chih Li, at least for some purposes.

In order to strike a balance between the Revenue and the Expenditure Tables, I have been obliged to adopt the device of inserting a minus quantity of , taels under the head of unexplained Kirin outgoings.

Kirin is the one province whose obvious incomings, even including subsidies, are short of its expenditure ; hence the sum is rather an unexplained asset than an unexplained shortage.

The whole question of Manchurian receipts and expenditure is a very loose one, and I only include those three provinces in order to indicate a basis for future inquiry.

All that is to be feared is that amongst such persons the good and the bad may get mixed, and that pretexts may be taken to raise trouble with native Christians.

Brooks in Shan Tung, and later, it appears, of certain Belgian engineers. Moreover, the native newspapers, in which the above decree is published a few days later, note with alarm that the ''Boxer" movement has spread with great rapidity across the province of Chih Li right up to the neighbourhood of Newchwang, where many immature youths in their teens have been gained over by the propaganda.

Nor is that a matter for unqualified regret, for it is now hopelessly corrupt, cowardly, and inefficient ; worst of all, it is vacillating, for a persistent villain is a better administrator to have than a weak old simpleton, willing to be hoodwinked.

But at the same time the Chinese themselves are politically as treacherous as the Manchus, besides being infinitely more crafty ; and therefore, whatever happens, it is highly desirable that European Powers including America and Japan in this term should stand to- gether and prevent the " yellow corpse" from putrefying their own existence.

Whatever our rivalries and jealousies, we Europeans, including even Russia, are all imbued with the one spirit of humanity, justice, and progress, summed up in the word " Christian ; " and this is none the less so though half of us may be atheists, freethinkers, and Jews; for it is the spirit of Christianity imbibed with our mothers' milk which forms our minds, even if we reject the puerilities of this or that dogma ; nor is it any the less so because we happen to be hostile to, and even at war with, each other.

Every Chinese dynasty, and every Tartar dynasty ruling China, has disappeared in a pandemonium of anarchy and butchery.

The Manchu dynasty seems bound to go in the same way, and the only thing is to localize the evil and let the anarchists cook in their own juice until they are tired of cooking, taking care that as few European interests as possible are injured.

Compared with Asiatic d masties generally, the Manchu dynasty was at first excellent and intelligent: The well- meaning legitimately selected Emperor is practically a victim to the assassin already.

For whose good is it to support such a dynasty? Being there, the dynasty is convenient to us in so far that it remains a tool which we can handle for our own purposes in a gingerly way without the necessity of hunting for a new tool which might possibly cut us.

But it has no other use under the present usurper and her minions. It is out of the question to substitute a Chinese dynasty, for there is no family in China whose name carries respect and weight throughout the provinces.

But things must not be allowed to come with a rush. If the "Boxers" or any other society once gain headway, a fearful amount of useless bloodshed and wanton destruction will take place ; so the first and most urgent thing is to restore order wherever threatened, and keep the military adventurers on the right side.

It does not in the least matter who runs the machine during this restive 46 China: Past and Present stage, so long as it is run on commission steadily and un- flinchingly.

It is high time now that, after two thousand years of political serfdom, the intelligent and industrious Chinese people, who are excellent municipal and village organizers, should have recognized rights conferred upon them.

K'ang Yu-wei himself should be thrust aside as a dangerous agitator, meddling with matters he only half understands.

In the same way Germany may reasonably put Shan Tung in order, without in any way treading upon others' toes. We and Japan must keep the Shan-hai Kwan open.

At the "proper moment" we ourselves should be prepared to hold the gates and the lanes of the Yangtsze ; this we ought to be able to do as easily now as we did during the Taiping rebellion.

France in Hainan, Kwang Si, and parts of Yiin Nan and Kwang Tung ; Japan in Fuh Kien ; Italy in Chfih Kiang; ourselves, again, in Yiin Nan and Kwang Tung ; the Indian Government in Tibet ; the Russians in Hi — here we have work cut out for all; and, starting from these bases, there is no reason why we should not each steadily advance year by year into our respective Hinterlands, and gradually turn the corpse into healthy meat.

It is not necessary to commit acts of aggression or conquest He that fights and runs away 47 Amongst modem missionary reforms, none is more remarkable or worthy of admiration than the Anti-Foot- binding, or Tien-tsu Hwei, started by Mrs.

The fact that so pig-headedly conservative a people as the Chinese are actually rising to the height of this reform amply illustrates how easy our general work will be when the ignorant people discover that we are really labouring for their benefit.

Missionaries of all kinds should have a free handy but under consular control ; and Lord Salisbury never came to a wiser decision than when he accepted Dr.

Temple's recommendation to decline an official status for the Protestant half of them. The occupation of Kiao Chou by the Germans, and the cession to the British of Wei-hai Wei, only increased the uneasy feeling that famines, floods, and the menaces of secret societies had for some time locally aroused in men's minds.

Things were made worse by the bursting of the Yellow River banks, and in November, , Li Hung-chang was sent to inquire into the disaster.

Some one seems to have denounced both him and the Governor, Chang Ju-mei, for corruption in connection with this inquiry ; at any rate, the latter was suddenly removed from his post, and a Manchu, named Yuhien, who had been Treasurer of 48 China: Yuhien had never occupied high civil office before, and had not been long at his post before he began to display, even in military affairs, more than the ordinary Manchu ineptitude, ignorance, and arrogance.

This order exactly suited the mulish and conservative mind of Yuhien ; but, unfortunately for the peace of the world, it also suited the secret society men ; and in the autumn of the doings of the Great Knife Society, and of a new sect called by the missionary correspondents " Boxers," began to attract serious attention in the south-west of Shan Tung: Possibly the reason was in part that the missionary troubles previously caused by the Great Knife Society in North Kiang Su had only recently been patched up with some trouble, and the border authorities had not yet relaxed their general vigilance.

The next thing that was heard was that this miserable specimen of a governor had been impeached for incompetence, the Chinese statement being that he had instigated a subordinate military officer to murder about innocent gentry and people.

Great things were hoped from Yiian Shi-k'ai ; but it soon appeared that there were hampering forces at work in the background. Meanwhile occurred the murder at Fei- ch'teg, south of the provincial capital, of the Rev.

Brooks, and the story of the " Boxers' " doings from that moment can be gathered from Parliamentary Paper No. It may be worth while, however, to go back a moment and inquire into the origin of the word " Boxers," which word, though an incomplete rendering, is, after all, a fairly correct psychological translation of the words Nto K'Uan or " Patri- otic Peace Fists.

During the reign of that Emperor's grandson, at just about the time when Lord Amherst visited China, the same society men, under exactly the same name, again gave trouble.

They were also called " Heavenly Order," and " Eight Dia- gram" people. Past and Present present rebellion, was a man a Mongol, I think named Nayench'fing, and in his report to the alarmed Emperor, dated , he actually uses the words I-lio K'uan, and describes their incantations, their boasted immunity from cannon-shots, etc.

Moreover, the titles of " Great Instructor Brother" and "Second Instructor Brother," which Nayench'fing says were then arrogated to themselves by the "Boxer" chiefs, are precisely those used now ; for on the 5th of June last, when the Empress-Dowager saw the first conflagrations at Ma-kia P'u south of the Peking walls from her I-ho Park, she was informed that the '' Second Instructor Brother " was the chief.

There is nothing at all historically improbable in the suggestion ; for an Emperor of China in the full hey- day of his power once accepted from the Turks the title of "Khan," in order to please them, and to encourage their loyalty ; and we ourselves all know what King Richard II.

It is also a fact, frequently repeated by high Chinese officials, that the Great Sword Society itself is only an offshoot of the ancient "White Lily Society" of dreaded renown, which goes back Fantastic as a IVoman's Mood.

Unfortunately, at Peking the " literary breeze " as the Chinese say " blows very poorly," and all recollection of what had taken place in the days of the Emperor's great-grandfather had apparently disappeared from men's minds, even if those minds ever knew anything of the past.

It was only about the 15th of June, when the literary and learned Viceroy Chang ChM'ung telegraphed to the well-disposed Manchu Prince P'uliang, and exhorted him to use his best influence to make the Empress-Dowager understand the truth, that it appears to have dawned upon her royal mind that the whole "Boxer" business was an imposture.

Chang ChMung telegraphed in these words: Beg at once that a decree may issue for their thorough extermination. The matter is of supreme political import.

The more Imperial clansmen and Manchu gentlemen of any kind you can get to join you, the better. If you delay it will be too late.

If you don't exterminate the fisticuff bandits, you will not be able to stop the foreign soldiers. Past and Present Empress ; but the provocation China has received, together with the hopes instilled into the Empress's mind that she now really had a good chance of avenging her husband Yichu the Emperor Hien-ffing , and the dynasty, ought to serve as mitigating circumstances in a judicially disposed mind.

Her desire to annihilate her European enemies is no worse than the German Emperor's desire to annihilate his Chinese 'foes.

As to the charges brought against her by Mrs. Grundy, there is no evidence, beyond tittle-tattle ; she is, anyhow, a woman of pluck ; and if she can make life less monotonous in her enforced seclusion by " carrying on " with the eunuchs, why should we be more severe with her than with a man?

Who is going to throw the first stone? In any case, it is not our business. However, let us leave morals alone, and see who are the persons chiefly responsible for misleading her.

There is no doubt about Kangi and Yuhien. He therefore makes a third in the number of those who will be " wanted " at Peking.

Prince Twan Tsai-i , of course, is another. His hostility is probably connected with disappointed ambition. As a matter of fact, the present Emperor is the son of the seventh brother, Prince Ch'un, and Prince Twan is the son of the fifth brother, Prince Tun.

The proper course is to go down to the next category Pu. Thus it is extremely probable that dynastic squabbles have complicated the " Boxer " question, which, taken by itself, might easily have been patched up.

I don't know whose son P'uliang is ; but, anyway, he is in the running, for there is no Manchu rule about primo- geniture: It is quite possible for a grand-nephew to be older than his grand-uncle.

Now, so soon as this precious crew were known to be in power, the sensible Viceroy Liu K'un-yih, issued a very good proclamation, explaining the imposture of the invulnerability claim, and pointing out that the Boxers "fell the moment they were shot at " by General Nieh.

The much-abused Li Ping-hdng and the Governor recently acting Viceroy , Luh Ch'wan-lin, all telegraphed together to say that the Boxers ought to be exterminated at once.

The Boxers took Ting- hing Luh's native place on the 20th of June, and it is said the unhappy Governor, fearing this, hurriedly abandoned his reviewing duties on the 17th of June, and hastened back to 54 China: Past and Present Soochow, only to hear a rumour that some of his own family had been massacred.

Yiian ShY-k'ai was ordered to march his men to Peking ; but later he was told, in view of possible danger at Kiao Chou, to send a trusty lieutenant instead.

In closing this short account of the origin of the " Boxer " rebellion, I will just state who all these better-disposed persons are.

He is a fine specimen of a really honest-minded Chinaman. Chang Ch'i-tung made his reputation in , when he impeached Ch'unghou for the "cowardly surrender" of Livadia.

He is a much more learned man than Liu K'un- yih ; but he is fiery, and not so safe and long-headed. I do not know him personally.

Luh is par excellence a literary man ; almost as tall as Li- Hung-chang; very pale and "blinky " about the eyes. He is no particular friend of foreigners ; but he is no fool, and not rabid.

He died in The Devil take the Hindmost 55 4. Yii Yin-lin is described at length in a letter to the Times of the 6th of September, Wang ChY-ch'un was once in Russia, and was first chosen for the Czar's coronation ; but Li Hung-chang was asked for instead.

Sungshou is a Manchu of the True White Banner: I do not know anything personally of these last four.

So far as it is possible to judge from what has taken place, every one has been taken by surprise by the recent outburst. My esteemed former colleague, Mr.

Jamieson, it is true, wrote to the Times to call attention to a remarkable prophecy made a month before the outbreak by a correspondent of the North China Daily News ; but the same correspondent had been spinning interesting yarns for a long time ; and the best proof that the editor did not think much of it is that for a whole month after this prophecy he made no further serious allusion to the matter: Moreover, if the Peking correspondent had any real evidence of danger, it was surely his duty to tell Sir Claude Macdonald, who cannot be expected to notice irre- sponsible newspaper alarms.

It is quite certain that the Russians and Japanese were taken aback. From the Emperor downwards nearly everybody is ready to sacrifice any one else, including his family and ancestors, to save his own skin.

As for mere subordinates, false accusations and backhanded private letters are the rule rather than the exception ; and generally nothing is more certain, when an inquiry takes place, than that the high official will get off scot-free, and one of his juniors be made a scapegoat.

Hence it comes that when serious danger arises, the mandarin, even if he wishes to act rightly, is between the devil and the deep sea: A Chinese crowd kills as much out of sheer panic as out of savagery.

If we could only get at Prince Twan in the flesh, and talk to him in a quiet and sympathetic way, we might even yet scotch the monster without great bloodshed.

Li Ping-hfing is fight- ing against us now, certainly. What loyal Chinaman would not, if he felt he had no alternative? But he seems to have advised the crushing of the "Boxers" with the rest, and moreover, as he knows himself to be tabooed as an enemy, the wretched man has no chance such as men in office like the two Viceroys have of showing that he means no harm unless attacked.

A good deal may result from the influence To err is Human, to forgive Divine 57 of Sir Walter Hillier, who has gone out as adviser to the naval and military folk; he is well known to most of the mandarins, and may possibly succeed in devising with them a means of holding China together.

If it were possible for nations, or rulers as the representatives and embodiments of nations, to swallow their pride, resent- ment, and ambition, acting solely according to what the natural instinct of all men secretly feels to be honourable and right, there could scarcely be a shadow of doubt in any one's mind that we ought one and all of us to pack up our traps and clear out of Kiao Chou, Port Arthur, Talien Wan, Wei-hai Wei, and Kwang-chou Wan, leaving the hoary old Empire of China one more chance of regaining its dignity, and giving it every reasonable assistance towards mending its mistaken ways.

The whole leasehold or " sphere " busi- ness is, as the lawyers say, vitiated by a savour of initial fraud, and it is this sense of elementary justice denied to it by powerful foes that has nerved up the venerable old carcass to run amuck, and make one desperate final bid for unfettered and independent existence in the shocking way we now see.

The whole history of European relations with China has, like most other human histories, been one of faults on both sides. Exactly three centuries ago the earliest missionaries from the West were fairly well received by the decrepit Court of Peking, notwithstanding the violent filibustering of the first European merchant traders on the Chinese coasts, coupled with the ravages of Japanese pirates; which two phenomena were of themselves sufficient to create suspicion 58 China: Past and Present and alarm.

Still, even a eunuch-ridden and corrupt court, such as that of the last Ming Emperors, was sufficiently reasonable to see that the pretentious dogma of Western religion might, after all, have some solid substratum of human good in it, whilst Western arts and sciences undoubtedly proved themselves to be of value.

And so James Rho and Adam Schall ultimately received Imperial civilities and sub- stantial employment at the Chinese Court A "Boxer" rebellion ushered in the fresh and lusty Manchus, just as another such is, after an interval of years, now ushering their degenerate descendants out.

Yet the first two Tartar Emperors were exceedingly well disposed towards religion ; and if Jesuits, Franciscans, and Dominicans had not inconti- nently taken to squabbling together about trifles of empty dogma, dragging in the personalities of the Pope and the Emperor to make matters worse politically, both the Christian religion and European progress generally would have had a promising outlook all over China.

But persecution cut the Gordian knot. Then followed nearly two centuries of prac- tical confinement to Peking, Macao, and Canton. The Dutch had been ignominiously turned out of Formosa, and had brought both themselves and their religion into contempt all over the Far East by accepting the basest of apostate conditions in the miserable patch of land called Decima, in Nagasaki Bay.

The Portuguese had obtained, through the connivance of corrupt mandarins, a not very creditable foot- ing in Macao, where they were partly endured by the weakness, and partly tolerated as a necessary evil by the venality and corruptness, of the Canton Government The bloodthirsty massacres of Chinese by the Spaniards in Manila make up the tale of Celestial wrongs and just sus- picions ; or, if we prefer to take the European point of view, of Chinese treachery and its well-merited castigation.

How- ever, it was a fair exchange of give and take on both sides. Manchu officials and Chinese traders were suspicious and corrupt. Spaniards, Portuguese, Dutchmen, and at last Englishmen, were greedy, rude, and violent The situation, if unsatisfactory, was as good as either party deserved.

Trade dragged on its corrupt course at Canton ; and, figura- tively and literally, no bones to speak of were broken on Throw Physic to the Dogs 59 either side.

Meanwhile the population of China had shot up in two centuries from 60,, to ,,, and the total revenue collected from this huge mass of humanity amounted to about one shilling per annum per head, pecula- tion included ; so that, whatever the faults of the ancient and exclusive civilization really were, things could not have been so very bad, even though the people were totally deprived of the consolations of Christianity we were so anxious to thrust upon thenu The next turning-point was the " Opium War.

It is unnecessary to press this point, for the Chinese themselves give a very fair account of it all, avoiding the straining of traders and of missionaries alike.

They say opium had for a very long time been imported as a drug, and that the habit of smoking it, and consequently of importing it in ever-increasing quan- tities, grew to alarming dimensions before any responsible persons became aware of it, or, at all events, realized its importance.

There is nothing much to be proud of in our importing opium into China for the benefit of our Indian revenue ; but, on the other band, it was a perfectly natural thing to do from a mercantile and political point of view, and therefore the Exeter Hall outcry about our lasting shame is quite un- justified.

Moreover, at this time the extensive use of opium in Turkey, India, and elsewhere had exhibited no particularly evil effects; and even if adventurous traders could be expected to go into heart-searching questions of commercial morality, they could have had no reason to suppose that the Chinese temperament would be so utterly exceptional as to lend itself to an undue indulgence unparalleled in the rest of mankind.

The Chinese even go further. They perfectly well know, and they officially admit, that Commissioner Lin's want of tact and fairness was greatly responsible for the failure of the great, opium destruction movement in , when 20, chests were surrendered and destroyed.

Past and Present British Government had practically given way, when they found that the Chinese reformers were in earnest.

Captain Elliott had surrendered every package of opium he could lay his hands on, and it on,ly wanted a little generosity, tact, and patience on the part of Commissioner Lin to put a stop by degrees to future importations from India altogether.

How- ever, misunderstandings and conceit led to war ; and after the cession of Hong Kong, the Chinese were so frightened at having to pay six millions of dollars for the opium destroyed, that they neglected to make any restrictive stipulations about the opium traffic.

To counterbalance this, China has since taken to growing opium, and the combined result has undoubtedly been to sap the Empire's strength.

The shiftiness of the Chinese in carrying out the various provisions of the Nanking Treaty generally, and the parti- cular difficulty about our getting entry into Canton, were, of course, unsatisfactory.

I am far from denying grave Chinese faults; but, on the other hand, I try to test the claims to virtue of our own, and to state a fair case for China.

We all know that the Chinese are shifty, and often untruthful too ; they are by no means alone amongst nations in these respects.

But the Nanking Treaty was forced upon them, and we have plenty of instances in European politics of Western nations shuffling, not only out of compulsory treaties, but out of treaties made in good faith and volun- tarily.

Moreover, our own European ways, even if tactful, were often misunderstood by, and offensive to, the Chinese ; and it is quite certain that they thought us all then, — as they feel they have reason to think us all now, — shifty, violent, and greedy.

The final result of these smouldering feelings on both sides burst out into flame in the shape of the second war, in which the French found a specific reason for taking part as allies owing to the cowardly murder of their mis- sionary Chappedelaine, following, as it did, upon a long series of persecutions.

The Americans and the Russians took the opportunity to press their own claims amid the clash of our arms. The results to the Manchus were even He should Take who has the Power 6i more humiliating than those of the first war, and therefore no one can be surprised that the Chinese as a nation do not love us in consequence.

The English and the French they have to thank for driving the Emperor out of his capital and burning the Summer Palace; the Russians for having, in , summarily annexed the lower Amur; for having, in , secured by treaty the left bank up to the Ussuri ; and for having, in i, secured by a second treaty the parts between the Ussuri and the sea.

The Americans were able to appear in a more friendly capacity ; but the Chinese regarded their motives as jealous and self-interested, none the less.

Treaties with nearly all the Powers now followed, and General Gordon lent his services towards propping up the Manchu throne, though it is well known that he later on considered China's best hopes to lie in the extinction of that dynasty.

And so things went on. The first rat to leave the sinking ship was Siam, which discontinued sending tribute. The French put SaTgon in their pockets as they sailed home ; but although the legal owner.

An nam, was a vassal of China, SaTgon was a province too far south to matter much for the moment In Bhutan was placed under our official ken ; but in this case, too, China had the Nepaul precedent, and did not mind much so long as the two Himalayan states were not occupied by our troops.

The next thing was the temporary occupation of Hi by Russia in , afler the Chinese had been expelled from Kashgar in , and Yakub Beg's power had gradually become threatening to his neigh- bours.

In disputes with the Japanese touching ship- wrecked seamen led to the temporary occupation by the latter of Formosa, whence they were coaxed out chiefly by the good offices of Sir Thomas Wade.

The same year the Loochoo Islands were summarily placed under the Japanese Home Office, though for many centuries they had sent regular tribute to China, and had kept up relations with Foochow.

By the treaty of , Annam opened Tonquin to French trade, and the Chinese now found to their horror that they had the French knocking at their very gates.

In , after first beguiling the Manchu envoy Ch'unghou into surrendering Hi, Russia thought better of it in view of the threatening 62 China: Past and Present attitude of progressive China, and ultimately gave back that province in consideration of expenses paid.

It has been said that this action was inspired by fear, which is very possible ; but, none the less, Russia is fairly entitled to the credit of an honest fulfilment of her promise, no matter what her motives may have been, which there is no title in others to question.

This gradually led to hostilities, French attacks upon Formosa and the Pescadores, the French disaster at Langson, and finally the arrangement of a " drawn " peace by Sir Robert Hart.

Corea next slipped away, and China, instead of being her suzerain, condescendingly receiving exclusive homage, now found herself merely primus inter pares, intriguing for her rights at Soul in company with a miscellaneous assembly of foreign officials of all countries, whose diplomatic status was as vague as that of her own '' resident.

For three or four years afler this poor China did pretty well, nothing more alarming taking place than a few British, French, Swedish, or Russian missions of inquiry into Man- churia and Tibet But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked aggressively during this short respite: Thus, from the Tonquin frontier town of Monkai, on the Gulf on Tonquin, to the mouth of the Yalu, in Liao-tung, the whole of the fringe of subject territory bordering upon China proper has been lopped off piecemeal since, forty years ago, she agreed to make treaties with European Powers.

No wonder the trunk begins to twinge when the extremities have all gone. Tonquin, French and British Shans, Burma, He should keep who can 63 Manipur, Bhutan, Sikkim Nepaul as well as Assam already practically ours , Hunza, Wakhan, Badakshan, the Pamir, Kokand ; then, at the other end of the Russian frontier, the Ussuri province; Corea, Loochoo, Formosa — all gone within one short generation — "all my pretty chickens and their dam at one fell swoop.

No doubt the conduct of China has been bad, but it cannot be denied that European behaviour to her has not been calculated to inspire confidence in the Christian purity of our motives.

In spite of her bad finance, she never borrowed a cent until we Europeans induced her to do so, and she has always been most scrupulous in paying us her debts.

Not to speak of Turkey, how do the Christian States of Portugal, Greece, or the Argentine Republic compare with her for financial honour? Her traders are quite as honest as ours, and often more capable: Her literature ranks among the first in the world, even though her educational system may be antiquated.

If she has unhappily debauched and weakened herself by opium indulgence, she has not yet degraded her manhood below the level of the drunken idlers who infest all our own British towns, or below that of the masses of Russian peasantry ; so that we Euro- peans live in glass houses in this respect.

Chinamen have been the making of all the European colonies in the Eastern seas. If they are not welcome in America or Australia, it is not entirely on account of inherent faults of their own, but partly because white men cannot compete with them on equal terms.

Past and Present amiss to a Chinaman ; he is quiet, industrious, patient, never gets drunk, makes an orderly husband.

In a word, with all his vices and defects, the Chinaman is one of the finest all- round citizens in the world. In thus stating a reasonable case for China, I by no means condone her faults collectively and individually ; and as for the Manchu Dynasty, I am not alone in the opinion that it has largely forfeited its right to exist.

The fault most offensive to us is arrogance, and for that China paid dearly when Japan gave her the thrashing she so richly deserved.

But at this stage three Great Powers appear upon the scene. Not one of these Powers had ever ventured to try a fall with Japan alone when she was in full bloom of strength ; but now that she was exhausted with the effort of crushing single- handed a presumptuous enemy for the common benefit of all Treaty Powers, they fell upon her in combination, and deprived her of the fruits of her victory, under pretext of there being danger to the world in a Japanese occupation of part of Liao-tung.

The following are the exact Russian words, translated: Taking up its position on the northern shores of the Yellow Sea, Japan would thus dominate the north-east of China, and so destroy the political balance of the Far East.

By virtue of this, Russia, France, and Germany, upon the initiative of the Russian Government, advised Japan, in the interest of maintaining peace in the Far East, to withdraw from its claims to the peninsula of Liao-tung.

Even for France, as squire-in-ordinary to the Russian knight-errant, the plea of humble duty might be admitted. But in the case of Germany there was nothing in the way of local interest to account for this unexpected attendance upon Russia, hat in hand ; and no one saw through the move more clearly than China, who never even pretended to show gratitude for the gratuitous aid proffered.

Of course, the negative policy of neutralizing the power of the Dual Alliance by getting indirect admittance into it as a tertium Man's Ingratitude 65 quid was the next best thing to the difficult task of positively weakening it, even though this involved a temporary dis- claimer of common interest with the Power which had nursed both Germany's navy and Germany's trade into being, in favour of the other two Powers who had always done every- thing they could to check it by severe tariffs.

As a matter of fact, it may be rather a good thing for Europe to draw off a little of Germany's electricity to the Far East ; but that does not make the action any the more admirable.

That Russia should expect some quid fro quo was not unreasonable, for she had never come to serious blows with Qiina since she was ejected from Albazin years ago; and her territorial acquisitions, if sometimes of a rather doubtful kind, at least were ultimately conceded to her by treaty.

Accordingly Russia obtained the permission of China to winter her fleet in the harbour of Kiao Chou, and also, in certain eventualities, to anchor in Port Arthur and Ta-licn Wan, which last two places, however, might not be alienated by China to any other Power.

The Cassini Con- vention also arranged for railways through Manchuria under Russian auspices. France obtained as her reward, at the expense of Great Britain, certain concessions of territory in Kiang-hung.

It is this foolish policy of mischievously trying to set one nation against the other that has cost China so dear.

It is the "policy of the weak," as frankly enunciated by Li Hung-chang. In this particular instance, we were not heart-broken at the opportunity of making China pay a just penalty for the silly attempt, and we promptly exacted com- pensation to suit our convenience on the Burma frontier.

Germany, sur ces entrefaites, got no thanks whatever from China, Russia, or France ; all three, or, at least, two of the three, too lightly regarding her as a gratuitous intruder or t hshi, as the Chinese say.

If Russia ever felt any gratitude at all, she had now got all she wanted, and made no visible effort to exhibit it.

All this was naturally calcu- lated to irritate Germany, who had thus made an enemy of Japan without having anything in hand to show for it.

Past and Present Certainly, from a pure bargainer's point of view, Germany was entitled to expect some reward ; but the Chinese, with their usual slipperiness, evaded all attempts made by her officious friends to obtain a naval station.

Germany's oppor- tunity accordingly arose when, on November i, , two German missionaries were murdered in Shan Tung, and a colony was promptly baptized in the blood of the martyrs.

The Russian right to take Kiao Chou on temporary lease had not yet been exercised, and the Cassini Convention said nothing about restricting the rights of other Powers there.

Perhaps some involuntary remark which the German Emperor had adroitly caused the Czar to drop at the famous interview which anticipated M.

Felix Faure left the German course technically clear. The Germans, according to their own published account, carefully eluded British watchfulness, chose the moment, and slipped into Kiao Chou unawares, taking forcible possession of the place in time of peace, and driving out the Chinese troops without further parley.

Baron Heyking proved obdurate in the subsequent negotiations, and the Manchu Government, by not summoning courage to resist on this supreme occasion, sealed their own doom, possibly for ever.

The insolent stupidity of the Chinese Grovemment, more especially in missionary matters, had meanwhile so alienated the sympa- thies of foreigners in China that, shocking though this singular disregard for those international conventions usually known as " international law " was universally felt to be, there was a general sentiment that it served China right, more especially as in yielding to Germany the mischievous Celestial statesmen clearly hoped to set foreign nations by the ears, and get Germany turned out Russia, however, simply took her share.

England and France promptly demanded com- pensation on the ground that: China, in short, for once overreached her- self.

This sort of thing had always paid well in bygone times, with ignorant Huns, Turks, Tibetans, and inferior frontier tribes generally; but European nations, though spiteful and jealous of each other, were found to be of tougher material than Tartars ; and, moreover, they had the advantage of a more logical and scientific training, better means of exchanging views, and more financial "pull.

Dunn for a nuncio or legate from the Pope ; she was prepared to give the utmost protection and toleration to Catholics and converts, provided that mere moral arguments were used with her, and that no force were applied ; and the Pope welcomed it, as any honest Christian would have done.

The Pope gave way, or his advisers did. The earliest use Germany made of her first Catholic mission in China, and of her successful assertion against French pretensions of her right to protect hier own Catholics in the Far East, was in connection with Kiao Chou, when Bishop Anzer adopted the most militant of attitudes in advising the German Emperor.

It seems to me an incon- gruous garb that modern religion is thus decking herself in, and one bearing a suspicious resemblance to the cloak of the Inquisition.

What should we think if unkempt and bearded Russian " popes " in their gaberdines had the right to stand up preaching in broken English on a stand at Nelson's monument?

Or if a couple of half-shaved, scowling Spanish priests accompanied as advocates to Sir F. Lushington's court a more or less innocent Cockney Catholic youth charged with breaking Protestant windows?

Yet this is what goes on daily all over China. My humble views upon missionary propaganda in China are expressed at length in the Dublin Review for April, I will quote a sentence or two: It is the medical missions which are the great success [every- where].

The French missionaries exact the utmost personal deference ; no converts of any rank presume to sit down. The Protestant missionaries do good in the following way: They teach poor children to be clean, speak the truth, and behave themselves modestly, chastely, and quietly.

Pride that apes Humility 69 convince myself they were in earnest. Anyhow, the learned Chinese, rightly or wrongly, regard the whole missionary business as a historical fraud, and they have as much right to do so as we have to criticize their own solemn "idolatrous" farces as they appear to us.

Why should a petty nation called the Jews, who to this day are despised outcasts nearly all over the European world, have had all this tenderness lavished upon them by Heaven, with a reversion of benefits to the uncivilized hordes of Europe, whilst several hundred million Chinese were to be entirely left out in the cold for years?

It is this that has caused the Dynasty, or a section of it, to go stark mad rather than tolerate any further an outrage against the most elementary principles of justice; and it is to this feeling also that we primarily owe a similar revolt of the mind amongst the ignorant masses, the whole culminating in the curious hesi- tating mixture known as the "Boxer" rebellion.

Prince Twan and his indignant friends have first induced the Empress-Mother to depose a weakly monarch who they thought was selling their birthright; and then they have fraudulently attempted to strengthen their own case by lead- ing Her Majesty to believe that the greedy foreigner was bent upon her destruction.

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